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Nickel

Nickel is a naturally occurring, lustrous, silvery-white metallic element. It is the fifth most common element on earth and occurs extensively in the earth's crust. However, most of the nickel is inaccessible in the core of the earth.

 

Nickel metal’s key characteristics are:

  • High melting point, 1453 ºC
  • Resists corrosion and oxidation
  • Very ductile
  • Alloys readily
  • Magnetic at room temperature
  • Can be deposited by electroplating
  • Has catalytic properties

 

Reflecting these characteristics, nickel is widely used in over 300,000 products for consumer, industrial, military, transport, aerospace, marine and architectural applications. The biggest use is in alloying - particularly with chromium and other metals to produce stainless and heat-resisting steels. These are used for pots and pans, kitchen sinks etc, as well in buildings, food processing equipment, medical equipment and chemical plants.


About 65% of the nickel which is produced is used to manufacture stainless steels. Another 20% is used in other steel and non-ferrous alloys - often for highly specialized industrial, aerospace and military applications. About 9% is used in plating and 6% in other uses, including coins, electronics, and in batteries for portable equipment and hybrid cars. In many of these applications there is no substitute for nickel without reducing performance or increasing cost.

 

High performance Nickel alloys

NICKEL 200 / 201
2.4060/61/66/68
UNS N02200/2201

Commercially pure (99.6%) wrought nickel having high mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. This material has high thermal, electrical and magnetic properties. Used for a variety of equipment, in particular in order to maintain the purity and cleanliness of food products, synthetic fibers and alkalis.

 

NICKEL 270
2.4050
UNS N02270

A pure grade of nickel made by powder metallurgy. This material has a low base hardness and a high deformability. The extreme purity useful for components of hydrogen thyratrons (gas-filled electron tubes). It is also used for electrical resistance thermometers.

 

MONEL® ALLOY 400
2.4360 / 2.4361
UNS N04400

A nickel-copper alloy with high strength and excellent corrosion resistance to sea water, hydrogen fluoride, sulfuric acid and alkalis. This material is often used in marine engineering, chemical and hydrocarbon processing equipment, valves, pumps, shafts, fittings, fasteners and heat exchangers.

 

MONEL® ALLOY K-500
2.4375
UNS N05500

A nickel-copper alloy that combines the corrosion resistance of MONEL alloy 400 with greater strength and hardness. This material has a high density and is resistant to the lower cryogene  temperatures of-101 ° C). Used for pump shafts, oil instruments, surgery, springs, pressure valves, fasteners and marine propeller shafts.

 

INCONEL® Alloy 22
2.4602
UNS N06022

Based on the usage of the elements chromium, molybdenum, tungsten and iron this alloy has excellent resistance to both oxidizing and reducing acidic environments as the mixed acids. It is particularly useful for corrosion resistance in acid environments. Applications include chemical processing and pollution control, flue gas desulphurization, waste incineration, paper and pulp processing industry.


INCONEL® Alloy C-276
2.4819
UNS N10276

A nickel-molybdenum-chromium alloy with an addition of tungsten with excellent corrosion resistance for a wide variety of extreme environments. The high amount of molybdenum, in particular, makes the alloy resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. The low carbon content minimizes carbide precipitation when welding. Used in pollution control, chemical processing, pulp and paper production and waste treatment.

 

INCONEL® Alloy 600
2.4816
UNS N06600

A nickel-chromium alloy having a good oxidation resistance at high temperatures and resistant to chloride ion stress corrosion cracking, corrosion by pure water and caustic corrosion. Used for furnace components, chemicals, food processing, nuclear engineering and electrodes.

 

INCONEL® Alloy 601
2.4851
UNS N06601

A nickel-chromium alloy with an addition of aluminum to get excellent resistance to oxidation and other forms of high-temperature corrosion. This alloy has high mechanical properties at high temperatures. Used for industrial furnaces, heat-treating equipment, petrochemical and process equipment and gas turbine components.

 

INCONEL® Alloy 617
2.4663
UNS N06617

A nickel-chromium-cobalt-molybdenum alloy with an exceptional combination of metallurgical stability, strength and oxidation resistance at high temperatures. High resistance to oxidation is enhanced by the addition of aluminum. The alloy also resists a wide variety of aqueous corrosive environments. Used in gas turbines for combustion of cans, petrochemical processing, heat-treating equipment, and in the production of nitric acid.


INCONEL® Alloy 625
2.4856
UNS N06625

A nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with an addition of niobium and molybdenum which results in the hardening of this alloy without having undergone a heat treatment. The alloy is opposed to a broad range of corrosive environments and is especially resistant in extreme environments to corrosion pits and crevices. Used in chemical processing, aerospace, marine engineering, equipment for pollution control and nuclear reactors.


INCONEL® Alloy 690
2.4642
UNS N06690

A high chromium-nickel alloy with excellent moisture resistance to many corrosive elements and high-temperature atmospheres. This alloy with high chrome content gives resistance to aqueous corrosion by oxidising (especially nitric acid) acids and salts at high temperatures. In addition to the corrosion resistance, this alloy has good strong metallurgical stability.

 

INCONEL® Alloy 718
2.4668
UNS N07718

A heat treatment hardened nickel-chromium alloy in which the elements of iron, niobium and molybdenum have been added and containing lesser amounts of the elements aluminum and titanium. It combines corrosion resistance and high strength with excellent weldability. The alloy has excellent "creep rupture strength 'resistant to temperatures of 700 ° C. Used in gas turbines, missile engines, spacecraft, nuclear reactors, pumps and tools.


INCONEL® Alloy HX
2.4665
UNS N06002

A nickel-iron-chromium-molybdenum alloy having excellent strength and oxidation resistance at temperatures up to 1200 ° C. Through the addition of the element this material obtains its strength. Used in gas turbines, industrial furnaces, heat-treating equipment and nuclear engineering.

 

INCONEL® Alloy X-750
2.4669
UNS N07750

This nickel-chromium alloy is similar to aluminum alloy Inconel 600. This material is by the precipitation hardening heat treatment and the addition of the elements aluminum and titanium good resistance to corrosion and oxidation phenomena. This alloy has also a high tensile strength and having good resistance to creep and rupture properties at temperatures up to 700 ° C. The excellent relaxation resistance is useful for high temperature gaskets and bolts. This alloy is used in gas turbines, rocket engines, nuclear reactors, pressure vessels, aircraft parts and tooling.


INCOLOY® Alloy 800 H / HT
1.4876 / 1.4958 / 1.4959
UNS N08810 / UNS N08811

A nickel-iron-chromium alloy having the same elemental composition as Incoloy alloy 800, but with significantly higher creep resistance. This alloy is used in the chemical and petrochemical engineering, power plants, industrial furnaces and heat treatment facilities.

 

INCOLOY® Alloy 825
2.4858
UNS N08825

A nickel-iron-chromium alloy with additions of molybdenum and copper. This alloy has excellent resistance to reduction, oxidising acids, stress corrosion and corrosion poison attack. The alloy is especially resistant to acids of sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid, used for chemical processing, oil and gas pipelines, reprocessing of nuclear fuel, equipment for production and acid pickling.


INCOLOY® Alloy DS
1.4862

A nickel-iron-chromium alloy with the elemental silicon addition. It has good high temperature strength and excellent resistance to oxidation and carburizing. The silicon content makes the alloy resistant to internal oxidation in high temperature environments. This alloy is among others used in industrial furnaces and heat-treating baskets, trays and fixtures.

 

INCOLOY® Alloy 330
1.4886
UNS N08330

A nickel-iron-chromium alloy with an addition of silicon for an increased resistance to oxidation has a good resistance to high temperature and excellent resistance to oxidation and carburization. Also at prolonged exposure to high temperatures, the microstructure remains stable. This alloy is among others used in industrial furnaces and heat-treating baskets, trays and fixtures.

 

NIMONIC® Alloy 75
2.4951 / 2.4630
UNS N06075

A nickel-chromium alloy with good mechanical properties and oxidation resistance at high temperatures. Used for production of sheet metal and gas turbine engines, components of industrial furnaces for heat-treating equipment in the nuclear industry.

 

NIMONIC® Alloy 80A
2.4952 / 2.4631
UNS N07080

A nickel-chromium alloy Nimonic aluminum alloy similar to 75 but tempered precipitation by additions of aluminum and titanium. The alloy has a good resistance to corrosion and oxidation phenomena with a high tensile strength, creep-rupture properties at temperatures up to 815 ° C. Used for gas turbine components (knives, rings and disks), bolts, tubes in nuclear steam generators, injection mold inserts, and exhaust valves in internal combustion engines.

 

NIMONIC® Alloy 90
2.4969 / 2.4632
UNS N07090

A by precipitation hardened nickel-chromium-cobalt alloy with high resistance to stress-rupture strength measures a creep resistance at temperatures up to about 920 ° C. The alloy is good resistance to high temperatures and to corrosion and oxidation phenomena. Used inter alia for blades and disks in gas turbines, tools which have to withstand high temperatures.

 

NIMONIC® Alloy 263
2.4650
UNS N07263

A precipitation hardened nickel-chromium-cobalt alloy with an addition of molybdenum for the use of strengthening the material. This alloy has a high corrosion resistance and good formability and distant The alloy is used in gas turbines for rings, housings and for the production of plates.

 

NILO® Alloy 36
1.3912
UNS K93600

A nickel-iron alloy having 36% nickel. It maintains its dimensions when used in almost exactly in a normal atmospheric temperature, therefore, it has a low coefficient of thermal expansion at cryogenic temperatures up to about 260 °C. The alloy also maintains its good strength and toughness when used in low temperatures. Used for measuring devices, laser components, bi-metal thermostat strip, rods and thermostat tanks and pipes for the storage and transport of liquefied gases.

 

NILO® Alloy 42
1.3917
UNS K94100

A nickel-iron alloy containing 42% nickel. It has a low and nominally constant coefficient of thermal expansion at room temperature to about 570 ° F (300 °C). Used for semiconductor bi-metal thermostat strip, thermostat rods, ceramic to metal seals with alumina ceramics and various glass/metal seals such as the core of copper coated wire for sealing into glass tubes of electric lamps, cathode ray tubes and fluorescent lamps.

 

NILO® Alloy 48
1.3922/26/27
UNS K94800

A nickel-iron alloy containing 48% nickel. The thermal expansion coefficient is designed to be used in combination of soft lead glass and lime. The alloy has a high transition point. Used for glass/metal seals in light bulbs and for industrial thermostats  at temperatures up to 450 °C.

 

NILO® Alloy K
1.3981
UNS K94610

A nickel-iron-cobalt alloy with 29% nickel. The coefficient of thermal expansion that decreases to the change of color with increasing temperature, corresponds to the rate of expansion of borosilicate Glas and alumina ceramics. Used for glass-to-metal applications where a high reliability is necessary or resistance to thermal shock. Examples include high-power valves, transistor leads and headers, integrated-circuit lead frame and flash photography.

 

UDIMET® Alloy 188
UNS R30188

A strong cobalt based alloy with excellent resistance to high temperature strength and good oxidation. This alloy is heat resistant up to 1093 °C. The high chrome level combined with small additions of the transition element lanthanum produces a very tenacious and protective alloy which is resistant to sulfur oxides. It has combined an excellent metallurgical stability by good formability and obtained by prolonged exposure to high temperatures. Due to the combination of good machinability and good weldability. This alloy is useful in typical applications such as gas turbine combustors, flame holders and transition tubes.

 

Waspaloy
2.4654
UNS N07001

A nickel-based precipitation hardening superalloy with excellent high temperature strength and a good resistance to corrosion, in particular against oxidation. It is used in aerospace and gas turbine engine components and is resistant to temperatures of 650 °C. For critical rotating applications up to temperatures of 870 °C. and for other less demanding applications. Applications include compressor rotor disks, shafts, spacers, seals, rings and fasteners and other various engine parts, Aviation Casco's missile systems.

 

Haynes 25
2.4964
UNS R30605

An alloy of cobalt-nickel-chromium-tungsten which combines excellent high-temperature strength with good resistance to oxidizing environments up to 980 °C,  with an excellent resistance to sulfidation. It can be manufactured and formed by conventional techniques, and is used in die-cast components. This alloy has excellent resistance to galling of metal in cold welding.

 

Haynes 188

Is a cobalt-based alloy which has a unique combination of properties. It has an excellent oxidation resistance and is resistant to high temperatures up to to 1150 °C. This is combined with a good formability. The excellent oxidation resistance is a result of minuscule additions of lanthanum oxide with the results in the positive effect that the resistance is very tenacious.

 

Haynes 214

Is a superalloy based on nickel with an exceptional resistance to oxidation up to 1260 °C. Although this alloy by a precipitation treatment below 925 °C may be strengthened this alloy is designed for use in dissolving the annealed condition from 980 °C. In this temperature range, the alloy has a reasonable strength comparable to that of Inconel alloy 601. HAYNES 214 alloy is commonly used in industrial heating systems and in specialized applications such as 'clean firing' of electronic and ceramic components. In the annealed condition HAYNES 214 alloy can be cold. Heat distortion takes place at temperatures above 1040 °C. This alloy is weldable. This alloy has an extraordinary resistance to carburization and high temperature and chloride-containing environments.

 

Haynes 230
UNS No. N06230

HAYNES 230 alloy is a super alloy which combines an exceptional high temperature strength with exceptional resistance to oxidizing environments up to 1150 °C, nitrogen and hydrogen environments and good resistance to carburization. There is hardly any embrittlement by prolonged thermal stress. This alloy is widely used in gas turbine engines, chemical and petrochemical processes, power plants and industrial heating.